who can i visit
I have a comfortable warm home, two boys who already love me and I can go and visit my friend Bozo whenever I want.
When spring arrived this year, I decided it was time to visit Wang Yuegang, the man who can spruce up your Turtle King.
“I can’t keep looking back at that,” said Ariza, who will receive his championship ring when the Rockets visit Los Angeles on Nov. 15.
i该生词本已经创建啦! i不可以出现中文，英文，数字之外的符号哒! i生词本名称长度不能大于24字符! i请填写生词本名称!论文热门搜索：
&& && && 汉语成语翻译的方法
【摘 要】 汉语成语承载着中华五千年的文化特色和文化信息.而翻译并非只是两种语言之间的一种简单的对应转换过程,而是一种文化的交流和传递。
【摘 要】 汉语成语承载着中华五千年的文化特色和文化信息.而翻译并非只是两种语言之间的一种简单的对应转换过程,而是一种文化的交流和传递。
[Abstract] Chinese idioms bear five thousand years of Chinese cultural characteristic and the cultural messages. Translation is not only one kind of simple correspondence switching process between two languages, but is one kind of cultural exchange and transmission.
Therefore, translating Chinese idioms into English is a concrete operating process. First, the translators must fully understand the intrinsic meaning of the C second, they should utilize several different translation methods nimbly and contrasts the similarities and differences between the English idioms and C third, they should carry on the suitable structure adjustment and translate Chinese idioms which bear cultural characteristic and cultural information in maximum limit for the foreign readers. Helping the foreign readers eliminate and reduce language and cultural barrier requests the translator to work diligently to translate the form of Chinese idiom in the way that the foreign readers are glad to accept. At the same time, this is a very big challenge to reappear Chinese culture in English.
To understand and translate Chinese idioms into English,it is very important for the translators to master and well acquaint themselves with the original language and the target language and their cultures. They should set out from the aspects of customs and cultural backgrounds and try to grasp the connotation of the original idiom by understanding linguistic and cultural differences between English and Chinese so as to make his version alike the original text in spirit. This article introduced several methods on translation of Chinese idioms concisely.
[Key Words] CEtarget language
About translation, the translation theoreticians have proposed many different viewpoints. In China, the most popular theory is Mr.Yanfu’s “faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance(信,达,雅)”while in the western countries, the most popular one is “equivalent value, equivalent effect and function equivalence(等值,等效,功能对等) ”.These viewpoints are mutually influenced and supplemented. Although the translators have different emphasis points, they all advocate that the translation must express the connotation of the original text faithfully and the style of the original work should reappear in translation. “所谓忠实表达原文的意义,应指忠实表达原文的字面意义,形象意义,隐含意义三个方面。” p65(So-called “expressing the indication of the original text faithfully”, is to express the wording meaning, the image meaning and the implied meaning of the original text faithfully.) But not all expressions, words, even characters in the original text simultaneously have these three kinds of meanings. Maybe some of them only have the wording meaning, but witho some may have the wording meaning and the image meaning, but lack of the implied meaning. Any two languages are impossible to be all coordinated completely. Therefore, it is impossible to completely reproduce the three kinds of meanings of the original text. First, because the cultural differences produce the contradiction in the translation process, the wording meaning or the image meaning must obey the implied meaning. Second, the image meaning of the original text cannot be found in the target language. Sometimes the images are the same but the implied meanings are actually different. In this situation, what the translators need to consider first is the accurate expression of the implied meaning. The images of the original text should be changed into other images that the foreign readers are familiar with.
2. Several methods of Chinese idiom translation
The existence of cultural differences brings certain difficulties to the cultural exchange. It is also the biggest barrier in the translation. When the transla
汉语成语翻译的方法tors translate one language to another, besides understanding the writing of these two languages thoroughly, the translators also have to understand the cultural differences between these two languages profoundly.
In Chinese “Idioms” means that “成语:人们长期以来习用的,简洁精辟的定型词组或短句。汉语的成语大多由四个字组成,一般都有出处。有些成语从字面上不难理解,如‘小题大做’,‘后来居上’等。有些成语必须知道来源或典故才能懂得意思,如‘朝三暮四’,‘杯弓蛇影’等。” P 130(Since long ago the people have used habitually, concise and succinct words or short phrases. Most Chinese idioms are composed by four characters, generally all of which have the source. The meanings of Some idioms are available from the word writing, such as: ‘小题大做’and ‘后来居上’; The meaning of some idioms should be got from its source or allusion. Such as ‘朝三暮四’ and ‘杯弓蛇影’.) On Chinese idiom translation, culture has a great influence on the translators' logical thinking and the glossary choice of the language.
The semantics of idiom has the integrity. Usually we cannot get its significance from a single character. If many Chinese idioms were translated into English directly according to the wording meaning, although the foreign readers can understand the meaning of each character, they still have difficulties in understanding the overall significance of this idiom.
Metaphrase is a method that the image and the forms of the original text are preserved, which can be translated literally. The readers also can catch the implied meaning by the wording translation. Some Chinese idioms have similar images, which the foreign readers can associate to the equivalent English idioms.
2.1.1 Literal Translation
In idiom translation, there is a tendency to find English equivalent idioms, equivalent in referential meaning rather than in the images. The reason is that the target text must be idiomatically English. Therefore, literal translation of Chinese idioms is often considered non-idiomatic. As long as the translation conveys a vivid image and the referential meaning is not distorted, literal translation can introduce Chinese culture to the world. Literal translation is a way by which the rhetoric, national and regional characteristics are kept in the target language. In this way the meaning and the form of the source language are unchanged.
Some Chinese idioms can be translated literally with the same vivid figurative result of the original ones, which can make the foreign readers associate to the equivalent English idioms.
⑴对牛弹琴 ---- To play the lute to a cow. The readers can associate it to the equivalent English idiom “to cast pearls before swine”.
⑵竭泽而渔 ---- To drain a pond to catch all the fish (the equivalent idiom: To kill the goose that lays the golden eggs.)
⑶易如反掌 ---- To be as easy as turning over one’s hand (the equivalent one: As easy as falling off a log.)
⑷口蜜腹剑 ---- To be honey-mouthed and dagger-hearted(the equivalent one: A Judas kiss)
Though there are not equivalent English idioms, some Chinese idioms with the literal meanings can also be translated literally with the accurate images. Such as:
⑸井底之蛙 ---- To be like a frog at the bottom of a well
⑹史无前例 ---- To be without precedent in history
⑺七嘴八舌 ---- With seven mouths and eight tongues
Regarding Chinese idioms translation, what many translation books discussed mainly was the replacement technique. Sometimes, equivalent translations can be found, but mostly only similar ones. Usually the replacement technique is necessary in the following situations.
(i) Chinese idioms have same meanings and culture messages as those in the target language.
There are many Chinese and English idioms, which have the same images as well as the expression forms.
⑴In Chinese, “浑水摸鱼” means “[释义]浑水:浑浊的水。指在浑浊的水中摸鱼。[用法]比喻趁混乱的时机捞取不正当的利益,也作‘混水摸鱼’。”P259 But the English idiom “to fish in troubled water” means “take advantage of troubled or uncertain condition for personal profit”. These two idioms are similar in both expression form and intrinsic meaning.
The similar idioms are as follows:
⑵赴汤蹈火 ---- Go through fire and water
⑶随波逐流 ---- To go with the tide
⑷知识就是力量 ---- Knowledge is power.
⑸眼不见,心不烦 ---- Out of sight, out of mind.
⑹谋事在人,成事在天 ---- Man proposes, god disposes
⑺空中楼阁 ---- Castles in the air
⑻充耳不闻 ---- Turn a deaf ear to
(ii) Chinese idioms share similar meanings but different culture messages and images with the target language.&nb
The Chinese idioms, which have same or similar vivid analogy with the English idioms, should be exchanged into the same or corresponding English idioms directly. Different languages have different images.
⑴For example: if translators translate the Chinese idiom “胸有成竹” directly into “have a bamboo in one’ s stomach” according to the wording meaning. The foreign readers not only have difficulties in getting the meaning that this idiom contained, but also have the wrong association easily. Therefore, the translators must discard the images in this idiom and change them into the images that the foreign readers are familiar with. So it may be translated as “have a card in one’s sleeve”
⑵The Chinese say “噤若寒蝉”(as mute as a winter cicada)”, yet the native English say , “as mute as a fish”. Fish and cicada have similar function in the above examples though they are not similar at all. As far as “silence” is concerned, fish is a familiar image to English speakers, yet the Chinese tend to associate the sense with winter cicada.
⑶The Chinese idiom “瓮中之鳖(the turtle in the jar)”means “[释义]瓮:大坛子;鳖:甲鱼。大坛子中的甲鱼。[用法]形容已在掌握之中,逃脱不了。”P651 .But the English idiom “likes a rat in a hole”, whose image is a mouse, which is stranded in a hole. It is in an extremely difficult situation. These two scenes agree without prior consultation but happen to hold the same view. Though the translators replaced the image, the foreign readers have no difficulty to understand its meaning.
The similar Chinese idioms included:
⑷胆小如鼠 ---- As timid as a rabbit
⑸挥金如土 ---- Spend money like water
⑹东张西望 ---- Look right and left
⑺缘木求鱼 ---- Seek a hare in hen’s nest
⑻抛砖引玉 ---- To throw a sprat to catch a herring
So, familiar images of the target language are often used to replace those of the source language. It is very regret that the foreign readers cannot understand the exotic atmosphere of Chinese culture.
(iii) Chinese idioms share similar images but different culture messages and connotation with the target language.
Some Chinese idioms and English idioms are almost the same in the expression form, but the commendatory or derogatory meaning, which the idioms contained, is different. So they cannot be mutually translated.
“习俗文化指的是贯穿于日常社会生活和交际活动中由民族的风俗习惯形成的文化。.P64”( The custom culture refers to the activities, which formed by nationality's manners and customs in the social daily life)As a result of the custom culture differences, the translators must pay attention to the animal words in the idioms whose meanings are different. For example, in China, the people often think the dog is loathing. Therefore, most dog-related idioms include the derogatory meaning.
⑴For example, “狐朋狗友(Pack of scoundrels)”, “狼心狗肺(heartless and cruel)”and so on. But in the western nation, the dog was considered as human's good friends. For example: “help a lame dog over a stile (雪中送炭)”, “love me, love my dog. (爱屋及乌)”and so on.
⑵For example: the Chinese idiom “笑掉大牙” includes the meaning “ridicules”. The English idiom “to laugh off one’s head” is only the expression of “laugh” or “laugh loudly”. It is a neutral word. These two idioms look very similar literally. But the commendatory and derogatory terms of two words are dissimilar. So they cannot be mutually translated.
⑶The Chinese idiom “说曹操,曹操到(when you mention CaoCao ,he soon arrives)” means “I was just talking about you!” it did not bring the derogatory meaning, but English idiom “talk of the devil and he will appear” has the derogatory meaning。
⑷If you translate “亡羊补牢” to English proverb “lock /close the stable door after /when the horse has been stolen”. The direct translation mistakes the meaning of “亡羊补牢" which means “still has not been late “! But this English proverb expressed the meaning “has already been late , beyond any help”。Therefore, 亡羊补牢can correspond to the English proverb “a stitch in time save nine” or “better late than never”
⑸In the Chinese idiom“令人发指” and the English idiom “to make one’s hair stand on end”,P164 the former one means “to make the person extremely angry “,the latter one refers that “ frighten or horrify someone”. So ‘令人发指’ can be translated into “make the blood boil”.
Paraphrase is a method that the original contents are preserved, but the forms are changed in the target language.
When Chinese idioms are metaphrased into the target language, readers still cannot grasp the meanings due to cultural difference. “有些习惯用语带有很浓的中国文化色彩…对于这部分成语,字面翻译是无法为外国读者所接受的。如加上许多解释性的文字,就失去了成语精粹的特点。最好的办法就是绕开其文化背景,译出其
汉语成语翻译的方法真正的内涵意义。”P139 (Some idioms have the Chinese culture characteristic.. Regarding this kind of idioms, the wording translation is unable for the foreign reader’s acceptance. If we add many explanations, the idiom characteristic will lose. The best method is to discard its cultural context and translate its connotation.)
Thus, paraphrase is needed to keep meanings to point and keep connotation in line with the culture in the target language, though it may fail to show the style of the original language. It is a good way to convey the connotation of Chinese idioms.
Mr.Ye Zinan mentions negation in 《高级汉英翻译理论与实践》. He gives the definition like this: “反面着笔法(negation)有时也称正说反译或反说正译。其基本概念是原文从一个角度下笔,译文恰恰从相反的角度下笔。” P80(Sometimes negation also was called that to express positively but be translated negatively or to express positively but be translated negatively. Although the basic concept of the original text starts writing from an angle, the translation exactly starts writing from the opposite angle.).
Sometimes the translators utilize the negation technique just to form an exquisite article.
⑴“塞翁失马,焉知非福?” is a rhetorical question, but the translation is “ Danger is next neighbor to security.” which is an affirmation declarative sentence.
⑵我很高兴看见你安然无恙。----I am glad to see you safe and sound.
In Chinese, “无恙” means “haven’t got illness”, which is expressed negatively. But its translation ---- “sound”, whose meaning is “健康”, is expressed positively.
“英语中有许多含有否定或半否定语气的词语,在翻译中可充分利用,以便使译文符合英语习惯,并使句子结构多样化。”P60 ( There are many denial or half denial expression words and expressions in English. If they are fully used in translation, the translation will conform to the English custom and the sentence structures are more varied.)
⑶For example: “木已成舟” in Chinese is firmly a declarative sentence. But its English translation is “things done cannot be undone” which expresses the identical meaning from the denial declarative sentence angle.
⑷“不入虎穴,焉得虎子?” is a rhetorical question, whose translation is “nothing venture, nothing have”. It is an affirmation sentence.
⑸他开车的时候心不在焉,几乎闯祸。----His absence of mind during the driving nearly caused an accident.
The noun “absence” conceals the meaning of negation. It agreed with the logics of the native English readers.
Mr.Ye Zinan had added “有时采用这种方法却是译者为了行文优美的目的,不用这个反面着笔的方法译文并非不通。反面着笔的方法在实际翻译中如果用的恰到好处,常常会使译者绝处缝生,是英汉翻译中非常有用的一个技巧。”P81(Sometimes the translator uses this method in order to reach a goal of forming an exquisite article. So even if they don’t use the method of negation, other translation methods still work. If the translator uses Negation properly, he will find his way out from an impasse. It is a useful skill in Chinese and English translation.)
“Substitution” refers to “some Chinese idioms are abstract while the equivalent English idioms
some Chinese idioms have concrete images but the equivalent English ones are always abstract.”
18.104.22.168 Substitute abstract concept for concrete images
The Chinese idiom is quite abstract, while the English idiom is concrete. Because its vivid image may enable the reader to realize flavor.
⑴For example: “做贼心虚” may be translated that “a bad conscience is just like a snake in one ' s heart”. We use “a snake in the heart” to transmit “心虚”--the afraid and guilty conscience of the thief.
⑵The correspond English idiom of “事与愿违”is “all your swans are geese”. When someone fined out all swans are ordinary geese and the disappointed facial expression is contrary to what he expects.
⑶“不知所措” corresponds the English idiom “all at sea”. Shall we try to imagine the situation that a person in the boundless sea. It is helpless.
⑷The idiom “入乡随俗” may be translated into “when in Rome, do as the Romans do.” Why in Rome but not other places? But the foreign readers are very familiar with this idiom. We change “乡(village)”to “Rome” which the foreign readers are so familiar with. Certainly they can accurately understand intrinsic meaning of the Chinese idiom “入乡随俗”.
The similar idioms are as follows:
⑸青出于蓝胜于蓝 ---- The pupil outdoes the master.
⑹不择手段 ---- By hook and by crook
⑺不辞而别 ---- To take French leave.
22.214.171.124 Substitute concrete images for abstract concept
“中国人特别喜欢用具体形象词语比喻抽象的事物,以物表感,状物言志。”P30(The Chinese lik
汉语成语翻译的方法e using the vivid concrete words and expressions to substitute abstract things, expressing their feelings and wills by things)Some Chinese idioms use the concrete images or things to describe the abstract concepts. Therefore, in translation process, the translators should boldly discard these images and translate the connotation of them appropriately.
⑴For instance: if the translators translate “顺手牵羊” directly into “walk off with a sheep” according to the wording meaning. The foreign readers may misunderstand that the thieves in China only steal the sheep but not other things. But Chinese readers haven’t got such misunderstanding. In this idiom, “the sheep(羊)” is a concrete thing actually which refers to “others' thing perhaps the property”. It expresses an abstract concept with the concrete thing.
⑵When we translate the idiom “狗急跳墙”, we do not need to describe specifically that “how anxious the dog is (狗急)”, and “how it to jump the wall(跳墙)”. As long as we express the intrinsic meaning, the foreign readers may be clear at a glance when we translate it as “do something desperate”.
⑶Perhaps we have to have a lengthy speech when translate “明火执仗”. But the direct translation is “do evil things openly”. The foreign readers can understand its intrinsic meaning concisely.
⑷If translate “守株待兔” in a detailed way, do we have the necessity to tell the fable story which conceals this idiom in details? Eve the foreign readers also cannot realize the implication, which this idiom contains. If we translate it directly likes this: “trust to the chance and stroke of luck”. The foreign readers may understand the implication easily. The only regret thing is that it lacks the Chinese characteristic.
Because the native English readers can’t accept the figurative images of some Chinese idioms, we should translate these idioms flexibly according to their actual meanings.
⑸For example, if we translate the idiom“眉飞色舞”into “his eyebrows are flying and his countenance is dancing”, the native readers will not only feel confused and puzzled, they will also think it funny and ridiculous.
More similar idioms are:
⑹粗枝大叶 ---- To be crude and careless. (Dead translation: with big branches and large leaves)
⑺灯红酒绿 ---- Dissipated and luxurious. (Dead translation: with red lights and green wine)
⑻开门见山 ---- To come straight to the point. (Dead translation: to open the door and see the mountain)
⑼大张旗鼓 ---- On a large and spectacular scale. (Dead translation: to make a great array of flags and drums)
⑽风雨飘摇 ---- Being unstable. (Dead translation: The wind and rain are rocking)
2.2.3 Additional remarks & Note
The readers need additional remarks and note if the meaning of the idiom is not completely understood.
126.96.36.199 Additional remarks
“Additional remarks” refers to “to increase the related information, which may help understand the intrinsic meaning of the idiom in the translation process.” It is usually concise.
⑴The translation of “事后诸葛亮” is “to be a wise man like Zhuge Liang after the event.” As we know, Zhuge Liang is a renowned character in the Chinese history. He is the symbol of wisdom. But the foreign friends may not necessarily know who he is. Therefore, the translator has to explain who Zhuge Liang is. The foreign readers are easier to understand the connotation of the idiom.
⑵你这是班门弄斧。----“You are showing off your proficiency with an axe before Luban the master carpenter.”
In order to help foreign readers understand the meaning of the idiom, translators add “showing off your proficiency “ to indicate the connotation of “班门弄斧” and also add some background knowledge of this idiom, that is to say, Lu Ban is a master carpenter. The method of translation not only makes the translation precise but also takes the meaning expression and the cultural exchange into account.
⑶Like “东施效颦” may be translated as “ Tung shih imitates Hsi shih” (Hsi shih was a famous beauty in the ancient kingdom of Yueh. Tung shih was an ugly girl who tried to imitate her way). Its concealed meaning is “imitates others to make a fool of oneself”.
⑷If we translate “八仙过海” to “ the eight fairies crossed the sea” without introducing “八仙(the eight fairies)”are characters in the Chinese myth story, the readers should be puzzled. Therefore we must add the annotation behind the translation: the eight fairies of Taoism in Chinese folklore.
“Note” refers to “to add the related information and bac
汉语成语翻译的方法kgrounds of the idioms in details.” It is usually the footnotes.
Although the structure is simple ,the implied meaning is profound. Therefore,they cannot be solely come up the understanding and translation from a single word. Some Chinese idioms are rich in Chinese cultural backgrounds, among which contain the ancient Chinese names from mythology and history. If we translate this kind of idioms literally, the native English readers will not understand them. If we translate the idioms with more explanation, the translations will loss the idiom characteristic of being concise. In this case, we’d better translate the idiom freely with the actual meaning rather than focus on its cultural background. If we use the method of direct translation to translate this kind of idioms, it will bring difficulties to the native English reader's reading and understanding. Moreover, even if we use the method of significance translation, we still can’t vividly reappear the literary reference and the cultural connotation of the Chinese idioms.
Some foreign readers don't know the meaning of the Chinese idioms from the paraphrase. But they may be wondering the stories related to them. In this case, concise note is necessary to compensate the cultural differences and decrease cultural loss. These methods should be cautiously used in the avoidance of tediousness and the explanatory notes are usually footnotes.
⑴“画饼充饥” ---- Allaying hunger with pictures of cakes
In the three kingdoms period (220-280), the kind of the Wei, Cao Rui, wanted to select a very capable man to work for him. He said to his ministers: “when choosing a talented person, always beware of one with a false reputation. A false reputation is just like a picture of a cake, it can’t reliever hunger.” later, this idiom came to be used to mean comforting oneself with unrealistic thoughts, without solving practical problems.
⑵“叶公好龙” ---- Lord Sheh’s love of dragons
Sheh was so fond of dragons that he adorned his whole palace with drawings and carvings of them, but when a real dragon heard of his infatuation and paid him a visit, he was frightened out of his wits.
The translators have to add a footnote to this idiom, and the foreign readers can get the connotation from it.
More similar idioms are as follows:
⑶毛遂自荐 ---- Mao Sui recommending himself
In the warring states period, the state of Qin besieged the capital of the state of Zhao. Duke Pingyuan of Zhao planned to ask the ruler of the state of Chu personally for assistance. He wanted to select a capable man to go with him. A man called Mao Sui volunteered. When the negotiations between the two states were stalled because the ruler of Chu hesitates to send troops, Mao Sui approached him, brandishing a sword. In that situation, the ruler of Chu agrees to help Zhao, against Qin.
So the Chinese use “毛遂自荐” to mean that “to volunteer one’s service”
⑷“一鼓作气” ---- Rousing the spirits with the first drum roll
During the spring and autumn period, an army from the state of Qi confronted one from the state of Lu. After the first roll of drums from the Qi side to summon Lu to battle, the Lu ruler wanted to attack. But his counselor Cao Gui said “we should wait until the third drum roll, sire.” after the Qi side had beaten the drums three times, the Lu army attacked and defeated the Qi army. After the battle, the king asked Cao Gui the reasons for his odd advice. Cao Gui answered, “fighting needs spirit. Their spirit was aroused by the first roll or the drums, but was depleted by the second. And it was completely exhausted by the third. We started to attack when their spirit was exhausted. That’s why we won.”
So, later, this idiom means, “to get something done with one sustained effort.”
Ms Hu Aiping has mentioned that “汉语成语有些是对偶词组,前后两对含义相同,修辞上优美匀称,尤其是在四字结构的成语中,多呈现‘同义反复’的现象。这种现象在崇尚简洁的英语中是最忌讳的。”P69
(Some Chinese idioms are the matched phrases. The meanings of the two pairs of words are same. They are exquisite and symmetrical in rhetoric. Particularly the four characters structure idioms present the phenomenon of ‘tautology’. This kind of phenomenon is a taboo in English, which advocate succinctness.)
The images in Chinese idioms are vivid. Many idioms have the compound antithesis structure. Though their explanations are different, the concealed meanings are same. Regarding this kind of idiom translation, In order to avoid “tautology “, translating the meaning of image is ok.
汉语成语翻译的方法近朱者赤,近墨者黑 ---- One who stays near vermilion gets stained red./When you touch red,you become red. There are some similar expressions in the English speaking countries: “one takes the behavior of one’s company.” or “one takes on the attributes of one’s associates.” or “watch the company you keep.”
⑵“无影无踪”,whose meaning is “to vanish without a trace”, the meaning of “无影”is “without an image”, “无踪”means “without a trace”. Hence, “without a trace” is enough to express the whole meaning of this idiom.
⑶忽闻有人在牡丹亭畔,长吁短叹。(罗贯中《三国演义》)---- suddenly he heard a rustle in the peony pavilion and someone sighing deeply.
Here, “长吁” and “短叹” have the same meaning of “sighing deeply”.
⑷“这断子绝孙的阿Q!”远远地听得小尼姑的带哭的声音。(鲁迅《阿Q正传》)----“ Ah Q, may you die sonless! ” Sounded the little nun’s voice tearfully in the distance.
In the translation, “die sonless” can express the meanings of both “断子” and “绝孙”.
⑸她只觉得头晕眼花,辨不出路径 ---- She felt too dizzy to remember the way she had come. In Chinese, “头晕” and “眼花” have the same meaning of “dizzy”.
The similar idioms are:
⑹愁眉苦脸 ---- Gloomy faces
⑺天长地久 ---- Eternal like skies
⑻五光十色 ---- Multicolored
⑼生龙活虎 ---- Bursting with energy
⑽字斟句酌 ---- Weigh every word
Nevertheless, translation methods are not fixed. One Chinese idiom may be translated in several different ways. Proper translations are to be chosen by consideration of various contexts and readers’ acceptability.
Eugene. Nida thought that, “对于真正成功的翻译来说,双文化能力甚至要比双语能力更为重要。”P70(Regarding the success translation that, the double cultural ability even must be more important than the bilingual ability)Therefore, translating Chinese idioms into English is a concrete operating process. First, the translators must fully understand the intrinsic meaning of the C second, they should use several translation methods flexibly, contrast the similarities and differences between English and Chinese, adjust th last, try their best to translate Chinese idioms which bear the cultural characteristic and information to the foreign readers. Helping the foreign readers eliminate and reduce language and cultural barrier requests the translator to translate the form of Chinese idioms diligently that the foreign readers are glad to accept. At the same time it is a big challenge to reappear Chinese culture in English.
Translation is not only two languages exchanges, but also one kind of cross-cultural exchange. Its goal is to break the barrier between the two different languages.
⑴裘乐英 英汉文化差异和习语翻译 [J] 四川师范学院学报2002
⑵现代汉语词典2002年增补本 [C] 商务印书馆 2002
⑹张勇先 实用英语惯用法教程 [M] 中国人民大学出版社1998
⑺冯庆华 实用翻译教程 [M] 上海外语教育出版社 2000
⑻叶子南 高级英汉翻译理论与实践 [M] 清华大学出版社2001
⑼吕瑞昌,喻云根等 汉英翻译教程 [M] 陕西人民出版社 1983
⑾陈宏薇,李亚丹 新编汉英翻译教程 [M] 上海外语教育出版社 2004
汉语成语翻译的方法论汉语成语英译中的归化和异化 [J] 阜阳师范学院学报 2004 P69
⒀王武兴 汉译英中不同社会文化信息的转换 [J]中国翻译
⒁曾奇 从文化翻译观来看汉语习语的英译 [J] 湖北民族学院学报 2001